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Safe Schools for All

Implementation Phase

Lots of risks associated with hazards are related to physical structure of schools that have potentially serious impact on death toll and the amount of losses. A survey carried out by DRES showing school buildings are not seismically resistant. The result of the survey demonstrated that 67 percent of school buildings need retrofitting or reconstruction actions in 2006.

There are actions have been undertaken in Iranian schools due to improving safety level of them by DRES in three main pillars as defined by WISS at the third UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction in 2009 [1] which will be explained in the following:

Safe Learning Facilities:

This area is related to structural safety in construction and providing safe and standard equipment in schools through the country. Some of activities have been developed in two main categories such as school building and standardization of facilities in the schools of Iran discussed in more detail as follow:

A) retrofitting of school building

The government of I.R. Iran decided to plan on the seismic risk reduction of schools in 2006. This subject has been suggested by Organization for Development, Reconstruction and Equipping of Schools of I.R. Iran to parliament and fortunately it was welcomed and confirmed. 

Seismic retrofitting is an important issue led to protect life and property in future earthquake as well as investments-saving.

Seismic retrofitting is an important issue led to protect life and property in future earthquake as well as investments saving. Retrofitting is a technical intervention in structural system of a building that improves the resistance to earthquake by optimizing the strength, ductility and earthquake loads. Due to variety in structural condition of building, it is hard to develop a typical rule for retrofitting of building. Different approaches are needed depending on the structural deficiencies, site condition and construction quality of school buildings.

Before making decision on retrofitting or reconstruction of a building, basic knowledge of structural type of school building is compulsory. In other words, school building should be categorizing in three main groups' safe, retrofit-needed or renovation/ reconstructed-needed. Due to the Iranian's schools database, status of schools based on the number of classroom in 2006 is describes in Fig.5

figure5.png

Figure 5: School Status in 2006 Based on the Number of Classroom


Also a thorough study has been conducted to determine the status of school building for seismic risk since 2006 till 2014 illustrated in table 4. The second row of this table contains the number of classrooms that has been studied for seismic risk in each year and this process has been continued up to now. Also the total number of classrooms is about 64,053 that have been studied since 2006 to 2013. School building area based on square meter that has been studied for the same purpose is in the last row of the table with total amount of 6,711,000

Table 4: Seismic Risk Study

year200620072008200920102011201220132014
Classroom5231,3249,16922,55510,1075,4034,56712,08354
Area48,904142,836974,6712,454,030990,617

526,297

392,9121,344,4379,653
Table 5 shows the number of classrooms and school building area that has been retrofitted and reconstructed since 2007 till 2014. The total numbers of retrofitted classes are about 28,000 and the total area is around 2,430,000 square meters. There is not any retrofitting action in 2006 and the most one is related to 2012.The result of school reconstruction or renovation is classified in the right side of the table. It is clear that the number of classroom and school’s area which has been constructed since 2006 till 2014 are illustrated in this table and there is a reconstruction peak in 2008. With achieving the aim of safe school during the next years, decreasing on the number of school is clear due to allocated budget and declining the number of unsafe schools [4].


Table 5: Retrofitted and Reconstructed Schools

yearRetrofitted SchoolsReconstructed Schools
ClassroomArea (m2)ClassroomArea (m2)
2006--12610,748
200712115,7539,5841,147,192
20081,300144,94115,2171,954,871
20092,201216,89111,5451,527,562
20105,335530,0325,315730,857
20117,076565,4193,582496,814
20128,492672,0505,724627,404
20132,219186,5022,796348,367
20141,211106,0102,962377,441


B) Facilities
Other activities have been started since 2011 in order to achieve schools' safety by Organization for Development, Reconstruction and Equipping of Schools (DRES) of I.R. Iran such as Standardization of Heating and Cooling Facilities which is of great importance factor leading to decreasing hazardous. In order to improve safety of these facilities, all kind of oil heaters were replaced by new technologies in accordance with climate condition and school's engine rooms were also equipped with the intelligent systems.
In order to improve safety level of these facilities, the instruction and standard have been provided by Bureau of Technical and Research Engineering, Organization for Development, Reconstruction and Equipping of Schools of I.R. Iran to prevent and mitigate the disasters at schools. In this instruction, the following issues are being mentioned:
  • Remove all non-standard heaters in educational environments
  • Standardization of heating facilities in rural schools based on the climate changes and the number of classroom
  • Standardization of heating facilities in the dormitories of schools based on the climate changes and the number of classroom
  • Standardization of heating facilities in Urban schools based on the climate changes and the number of classroom

Regarding table 6, standardization of heating and cooling facilities of schools during 2013-2014 is categorized as follow:

Table 6: standardization of schools’ facilities

Classrooms Budget (US $)Year
28'69659'000'0002011-2013
is going on100'000'0002014-2015



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